Local government and municipal employees
Two decades ago, virtually all workers in the municipal sphere were permanent employees, directly employed by municipalities. Today this category makes up only half of workers.
Many are now employed by commercialised and corporatized municipal entities. Municipalities also oversee low-paid, short-term EPWP and other community-based programmes; and employ volunteers who do municipal work without remuneration.
However, the employees of outsourced private companies, contracted to municipalities, make up an ever growing proportion of all ‘municipal’ workers.
Today permanently employed municipal workers - typically union members and protected by collective bargaining agreements - are outnumbered by a growing neoliberalised super-exploited category of employee.